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Afghanistan is a landlocked country with an area of 652,864  km². It is situated at the hub of South Asia and Central Asia and is bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan’s land surface includes considerable mountain cover, the Hindu Kush, with peaks as high as 7,000 meters (m). At lower altitudes are large expanses of arid steppe and a significant desert region found in the southwestern plateau. Though lacking in vegetation, these drier areas of the country nonetheless support biodiverse ecosystems and unique landscapes. Afghanistan has an arid continental climate with considerable temperature and precipitation variation between seasons [1]

Following the withdrawal of US forces and NATO partners in August 2021, the Taliban reclaimed control of Afghanistan.